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Giant panda at the Ocean Park Hong Kong. Ailuropoda melanoleuca David , . Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Wikispecies has information related to Ailuropoda melanoleuca.
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The giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca , literally "black and white cat-foot"; Chinese: The name "giant panda" is sometimes used to distinguish it from the unrelated red panda.
In captivity, they may receive honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves , oranges, or bananas along with specially prepared food. The giant panda lives in a few mountain ranges in central China, mainly in Sichuan , but also in neighbouring Shaanxi and Gansu.
The giant panda is a conservation-reliant vulnerable species. For many decades, the precise taxonomic classification of the giant panda was under debate because it shares characteristics with both bears and raccoons.
Despite the shared name, habitat type, and diet, as well as a unique enlarged bone called the pseudo thumb which helps them grip the bamboo shoots they eat the giant panda and red panda are only distantly related.
The word panda was borrowed into English from French, but no conclusive explanation of the origin of the French word panda has been found.
The Western world originally applied this name to the red panda. Until , when it was erroneously stated to be related to the red panda, the giant panda was known as "black and white cat-footed animal" Ailuropus melanoleucus.
Some linguists argue, in this construction, "bear" instead of "cat" is the base noun, making this name more grammatically and logically correct, which may have led to the popular choice despite official writings.
Two subspecies of giant panda have been recognized on the basis of distinct cranial measurements, color patterns, and population genetics.
The giant panda has luxuriant black-and-white fur. Adults measure around 1. The giant panda has a body shape typical of bears.
It has black fur on its ears, eye patches, muzzle, legs, arms and shoulders. Although scientists do not know why these unusual bears are black and white, speculation suggests that the bold coloring provides effective camouflage in their shade-dappled snowy and rocky habitat.
It has evolved from previous ancestors to exhibit larger molars with increased complexity and expanded temporal fossa.
The longest belongs to the sloth bear. The giant panda typically lives around 20 years in the wild and up to 30 years in captivity.
A seven-year-old female named Jin Yi died in in a zoo in Zhengzhou , China, after showing symptoms of gastroenteritis and respiratory disease.
It was found that the cause of death was toxoplasmosis , a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii and infecting most warm-blooded animals, including humans.
The giant panda genome was sequenced in using Illumina dye sequencing. Its ability to digest cellulose is ascribed to the microbes in its gut.
Ingestion of such a large quantity of material is possible because of the rapid passage of large amounts of indigestible plant material through the short, straight digestive tract.
Given this voluminous diet, the giant panda defecates up to 40 times a day. The giant panda tends to limit its social interactions and avoids steeply sloping terrain to limit its energy expenditures.
Anthropologist Russell Ciochon observed: This lower metabolic rate and a more sedentary lifestyle allows the giant panda to subsist on nutrient poor resources such as bamboo.
The morphological characteristics of extinct relatives of the giant panda suggest that while the ancient giant panda was omnivorous 7 million years ago mya , it only became herbivorous some Pandas eat any of 25 bamboo species in the wild, such as Fargesia dracocephala  and Fargesia rufa.
Bamboo leaves contain the highest protein levels; stems have less. Because of the synchronous flowering, death, and regeneration of all bamboo within a species, the giant panda must have at least two different species available in its range to avoid starvation.
While primarily herbivorous, the giant panda still retains decidedly ursine teeth and will eat meat, fish, and eggs when available. Pandas will travel between different habitats if they need to, so they can get the nutrients that they need and to balance their diet for reproduction.
They took note of their foraging and mating habits and analyzed samples of their food and feces. The pandas would move from the valleys into the Qinling Mountains and would only return to the valleys in autumn.
During the summer months bamboo shoots rich in protein are only available at higher altitudes which causes low calcium rates in the pandas and during breeding season the pandas would trek back down to eat bamboo leaves rich in calcium.
Although adult giant pandas have few natural predators other than humans, young cubs are vulnerable to attacks by snow leopards , yellow-throated martens ,  eagles, feral dogs, and the Asian black bear.
The giant panda is a terrestrial animal and primarily spends its life roaming and feeding in the bamboo forests of the Qinling Mountains and in the hilly province of Sichuan.
Social encounters occur primarily during the brief breeding season in which pandas in proximity to one another will gather.
Pandas were thought to fall into the crepuscular category, those who are active twice a day, at dawn and dusk; however, Jindong Zhang found that pandas may belong to a category all of their own, with activity peaks in the morning, afternoon and midnight.
Due to their sheer size, pandas do not need to fear predators like other herbivores. They can therefore be active at any time of the day.
Pandas communicate through vocalization and scent marking such as clawing trees or spraying urine. For this reason, pandas do not hibernate , which is similar to other subtropical mammals, and will instead move to elevations with warmer temperatures.
Though the panda is often assumed to be docile, it has been known to attack humans, presumably out of irritation rather than aggression.
Initially, the primary method of breeding giant pandas in captivity was by artificial insemination , as they seemed to lose their interest in mating once they were captured.
The normal reproductive rate is considered to be one young every two years. Giant pandas reach sexual maturity between the ages of four and eight, and may be reproductive until age Copulation time is short, ranging from 30 seconds to five minutes, but the male may mount her repeatedly to ensure successful fertilization.
The gestation period ranges from 95 to days. Giant pandas give birth to twins in about half of pregnancies. The mother will select the stronger of the cubs, and the weaker cub will die due to starvation.
The mother is thought to be unable to produce enough milk for two cubs since she does not store fat. For three to four hours, the mother may leave the den to feed, which leaves the cub defenseless.
Its fur is very soft and coarsens with age. The cub begins to crawl at 75 to 80 days;  mothers play with their cubs by rolling and wrestling with them.
The interval between births in the wild is generally two years. In July , Chinese scientists confirmed the birth of the first cub to be successfully conceived through artificial insemination using frozen sperm.
Attempts have also been made to reproduce giant pandas by interspecific pregnancy by implanting cloned panda embryos into the uterus of an animal of another species.
This has resulted in panda fetuses, but no live births. In the past, pandas were thought to be rare and noble creatures — the Empress Dowager Bo was buried with a panda skull in her vault.
The grandson of Emperor Taizong of Tang is said to have given Japan two pandas and a sheet of panda skin as a sign of goodwill.
Unlike many other animals in Ancient China , pandas were rarely thought to have medical uses. Zouyu is a legendary "righteous" animal, which, similarly to a qilin , only appears during the rule of a benevolent and sincere monarch.
It is said to be fierce as a tiger , but gentle and strictly vegetarian, and described in some books as a white tiger with black spots.
Puzzled about the real zoological identity of the creature captured during the Yongle era, J. Duyvendak exclaims, "Can it possibly have been a Pandah?
The West first learned of the giant panda on 11 March , when the French missionary Armand David  received a skin from a hunter.
The first Westerner known to have seen a living giant panda is the German zoologist Hugo Weigold , who purchased a cub in Kermit and Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.
In , Ruth Harkness became the first Westerner to bring back a live giant panda, a cub named Su Lin  which went to live at the Brookfield Zoo in Chicago.
In , five giant pandas were sent to London. This practice has been termed "panda diplomacy". By , however, pandas were no longer given as gifts.
Since , because of a WWF lawsuit , the United States Fish and Wildlife Service only allows a US zoo to import a panda if the zoo can ensure the PRC will channel more than half of its loan fee into conservation efforts for the giant panda and its habitat.
The issue became embroiled in cross-Strait relations — both over the underlying symbolism, and over technical issues such as whether the transfer would be considered "domestic" or "international", or whether any true conservation purpose would be served by the exchange.
However, when Ma Ying-jeou assumed the presidency in , the offer was accepted, and the pandas arrived in December of that year.
Microbes in panda waste are being investigated for their use in creating biofuels from bamboo and other plant materials. The giant panda is a vulnerable species , threatened by continued habitat loss and habitat fragmentation ,  and by a very low birthrate, both in the wild and in captivity.
The giant panda has been a target of poaching by locals since ancient times and by foreigners since it was introduced to the West. Starting in the s, foreigners were unable to poach giant pandas in China because of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War , but pandas remained a source of soft furs for the locals.
During the Cultural Revolution , all studies and conservation activities on the pandas were stopped. After the Chinese economic reform , demand for panda skins from Hong Kong and Japan led to illegal poaching for the black market , acts generally ignored by the local officials at the time.
Though the Wolong National Nature Reserve was set up by the PRC government in to save the declining panda population, few advances in the conservation of pandas were made, owing to inexperience and insufficient knowledge of ecology.
Many believed the best way to save the pandas was to cage them. As a result, pandas were caged at any sign of decline and suffered from terrible conditions.
Because of pollution and destruction of their natural habitat, along with segregation caused by caging, reproduction of wild pandas was severely limited.
In the s, however, several laws including gun control and the removal of resident humans from the reserves helped their chances of survival.
With these renewed efforts and improved conservation methods, wild pandas have started to increase in numbers in some areas, though they still are classified as a rare species.
In , scientists reported that the number of pandas living in the wild may have been underestimated at about 1, Previous population surveys had used conventional methods to estimate the size of the wild panda population, but using a new method that analyzes DNA from panda droppings , scientists believe the wild population may be as large as 3, Furthermore, in response to this reclassification, the State Forestry Administration of China announced that they would not accordingly lower the conservation level for panda, and would instead reinforce the conservation efforts.
The Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries , located in the southwest province of Sichuan and covering seven natural reserves, were inscribed onto the World Heritage List in Not all conservationists agree that the money spent on conserving pandas is well spent.
Chris Packham has argued that the breeding of pandas in captivity is "pointless" because "there is not enough habitat left to sustain them".
In , Earthwatch Institute , a global nonprofit that teams volunteers with scientists to conduct important environmental research, launched a program called "On the Trail of Giant Panda".
This program, based in the Wolong National Nature Reserve, allows volunteers to work up close with pandas cared for in captivity, and help them adapt to life in the wild, so that they may breed, and live longer and healthier lives.
Chi Chi at the London Zoo became very popular. This influenced the World Wildlife Fund to use a panda as its symbol. A New York Times article  outlined the economics of keeping pandas, which costs five times more than that of the next most expensive animal, an elephant.
Skeptical cryptozoologist Joe Nickell , notes that since Giant Pandas were known to local people, they qualify as cryptids. Also, fossil evidence shows that pandas were once widespread, including the two million year old skull of Ailuropoda microta.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Panda disambiguation , Panda Bear musician , and Giant panda disambiguation. David , .
Giant pandas around the world and List of giant pandas. Retrieved 5 September Animals of the rain forest illustrated ed.
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